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Cumin (Jeera)

Cumin or jeera as is commonly called in India is one of the important spices & condiments, widely used for culinary as well as medicinal purposes.
Jeera is reported to have originated from Mediterranean to India. Cumin was known to the Egyptians 5,000 years ago and it was found in the pyramids.
It is extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean region of Europe and in India. Major producing areas are Europe, Asia, Middle East
and North Africa. However, India is the largest producer as well as consumer of jeera or cumin in the world.
 
Economically Important Products
Seed/ fruit: The economically important part of the plant is the dried fruit. It is used as a condiment in various cuisines of different cultures either as
whole or in powdered form. It is reported to have some medicinal properties.
Cumin oil is reported to have antibacterial activity. It is used in veterinary medicines and various other industries.
 
Climate and Cultivation
Jeera grows well in both tropical and sub-tropical climate and it comes up well in all types of soils but well drained sandy loam soils are best suited.
It thrives well between 9o to 26o C and annual rainfall of 30 to 270 cms. Crop duration is 110-120 days depending on the variety. Unlike other tropical plants, it requires relatively less water and rainfall during the harvesting period is unfavorable for the seed quality.
 

Cultivating seasons vary across major producing countries particularly of India and Turkey as presented below.

 

 

Crop calendar for major producing countries

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Turkey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sowing 

 

 

Harvesting

 

 

In India it is mainly grown as rabi crop mainly in Gujarat and Rajasthan. It is sown in Oct to November and harvested in Feb and Mar.

 

 

Crop Calendar for India

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Gujarat & Rajasthan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sowing 

 

 

Harvesting

 

 

 

World Scenario
India is the single largest producer as well as consumer of jeera in the world accounting for about 70% of world production.
Other important producers of jeera are Syria, Iran, Turkey. Although no reliable data are available on world jeera output,
it is expected be around 5-6 lakh tonnes. Syria is the second largest producer followed by Iran and Turkey.
 
 
 
 
Domestic Scenario
Domestic production trends during the past 5 years indicated that the output increased steadily until 2011-12 but moderated
slightly during 2012-13. The average annual production has posted a significant increase during the past decade. Production has
increased from about 1-2 lakh tonne in the early 2000s to about 4.6 lakh tonnes in 2011-12.
 
 
 
 
State-wise production trends
 
Gujarat is the single largest producer of jeera in the country accounting for over 60-70% of total production and the rest
of the output comes from Rajasthan. Gujarat and Rajasthan together account for about 99% of jeera production in the country
while the other states produce negligible quantities.
Both Gujarat and Rajasthan used to produce almost equal amount output until the early 2000s. But the output
from Gujarat increased rather steeply from mid-2000s and became the single largest producer. Nevertheless,
the area and production of jeera from Rajasthan also picked up momentum from 2010-11 onwards.
 
 
 
 
Major Markets
 
Spot markets: Delhi and
Gujarat: Unjha, Rajkot
Rajasthan: Kekri , Nagaur, Jodhpur, Palli, Jaipur
 
Futures Markets:
Futures are offered on NCDEX and ICEX.
 
External Trade
India is the major exporter of jeera in the world. India’s exports stood at average rate of 20000 tonnes a year during 2000s.
However, they reached a record level of 52000 tonnes in 2008-09. Although moderated in the subsequent years,
they have once again jumped up to a record level of 79900 tonnes in 2012-13 as per the latest estimates available
with the Spices Board of India.    
 
 
Major export destinations: UK, US, Brazil, UAE, Nepal and Malaysia.
Major import sources: NA



Balance sheet

 

There are no authentic and reliable estimates available for cumin demand and supply. However, market participants assess the scenario and come out with estimates, which can provide a broad picture of the commodity demand and supply if not precise numbers.

In view of this, CC Research Team has collected demand and supply estimates from various stakeholders in cumin market. The details are provided in Table .

 

Cumin Seed: Balance Sheet

Cumin Seed

Pankaj Thakkar

(VP & Sons, Mumbai)

Dixit Patel (GL Enterprises, Unjha)

Kanti Bhai Patel (Kantilal Jivram, Unjha)

Arvind Patel (Ex-President, Chamber of Commerce, Unjha)

Ashwin Patel

(B & R Company,

Rajkot)

 

Production

48 Lakh bags

45 Lakh bags

45 Lakh bags

45 Lakh bags

45 Lakh bags

Opening Stock

10 Lakh bags

18 Lakh bags

15 Lakh bags

10-12 Lakh bags

15 Lakh bags

Total Supply

58 Lakh bags

63 Lakh bags

60 Lakh bags

57 Lakh bags

60 Lakh bags

Domestic & Export Demand

55 Lakh bags

55 Lakh bags

55 Lakh bags

55 Lakh bags

55 Lakh bags

Carryover Stocks for 2016

Lakh bags

Lakh bags

Lakh bags

Lakh bags

Lakh bags

Note: 1 bag = 55 kg

Source: Survey of trade sources by CC Research Team

 
Factors Influencing Prices
  • Crop condition and output expectations: Extent of area sown under the crop, condition of the crop and output expectation.
  • Rainfall and weather conditions that could affect the crop output.
  • Domestic demand expectation: Any changes in demand both domestic as well as international markets.
  • Stocks available in the market.
  • External demand and supply: Demand supply situation in major import sources.
  • Trade policies: Any change in government policy relating to change in tariffs etc.,
 

 

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