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Coriander or dhaniya is an indispensible spice in Indian as well as in all other cuisines. There is no distinct evidence on its place of origin but it is believed to be a native of southern Europe. Although it is now widely cultivated all over the world for its green leaves, seed production is largely concentrated in India. It is scientifically known as Coriandrum sativum.
Economically Important Products:
Coriander whole plant is used for consumption as a spice in various preparations.
Tender plant & leaves are used in various cuisines and also for dressing/topping.
Seeds, crushed or powdered, are used in a variety of cuisines particularly in India.
Roots are also used for flavour in Thai preparations.
Climate and cultivation
It is mainly cultivated as a rabi crop in India as Coriander requires cool climate during growth and warm dry climate during seed maturity. It can be cultivated in all types of soils but comes up well on well drained loamy soils. It is cultivated across the country though production is concentrated in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.
There are no authentic estimates available on world production of coriander. However, it is known to have been cultivated for seed purpose in india, Moracco, Canada, Romania, Russia, Ukrain, Turkey, Egypt, China, US, Argentina and Mexico.
India is the largest producer and consumer of coriander seed. Coriander production has increased significantly in the past decade and currently hovering around 5 lakh tonnes. The rise in output was primarily on account of rise in yields. However, coriander production has moderated in 2012-13 due to adverse weather conditions.
State-Wise Production Trends
Coriander production is concentrated in north-central India and Assam. Largest producer of coriander seed in the country is Rajasthan accounting for about 58% followed by MP with about 15%, Assam and Gujarat with 8% each of total coriander seed production in the country.
Rajasthan : Ramganj, Kota, Baran
MP: Neemuch, Kumbhraj
TN: Thiruchirappilly, Virudhunagar
AP: Guntur, Varavakonda, Nandyal
Coriander futures in India are traded on NCDEX
India being the largest producer of coriander seed, is the largest exporter of the same. India exports around 40000 tonnes of coriander either in the form of whole seed or in powdered form.
Major Export Destinations
Malaysia, Pakistan, UAE, Saudi Arabia, US, Yemen and other Asian countries.
Major Import Sources
Italy, Bulgaria, US, Russia, Ukrain.
Factors Influencing Prices
· External demand and supply: Demand supply situation in major import sources.
· Trade policies: Any change in government policy relating to change in tariffs etc.,