Black gram is a member of the Asiatic Vigna crop group. It is an annual pulse grown mostly as a fallow crop in rotation with cereals. Similar to the other pulses, black gram, being a legume, it enriches soil nitrogen content and has relatively a short (90-120 days) duration.
Black gram is scientifically known as Phasiolus mungo and it is commonly known as Urad in India. India is its primary origin and is mainly cultivated in Asian countries including Pakistan, Myanmar and parts of southern Asia.
About 70 per cent of world’s black gram production comes from India.The area of traditional cultivation of black gram is confined to the South Asia and adjacent regions ( India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar).
Seasons and cultivation
Black gram is a warm weather crop and comes up in areas receiving an annual rainfall ranging from 600 to 1000mm. It is mainly cultivated in a cereal-pulse cropping system primarily to conserve soil nutrients and utilize the left over soil moisture particularly after rice cultivation. Hence, although it is grown in all the seasons, majority of black gram cultivation falls in either rabi or late rabi seasons particularly in peninsular India.
Type 27, Type 56, Pusa 1, Pant 430, Khargone 3, ADT 1 to 3, HPU 6, T 65, LBG 402, LBG 22, LBG 20
Domestic production scenario
India is the largest producer as well as consumer of black gram. It produces about 1.5 million tonnes of urad annually from about 2.5 million hectares of area with an average productivity of 400 kg per hectare. Black gram output accounts for about 10 per cent of India's total pulse production
Major producing states
The major producing states are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producing state contributing for about 24 per cent of total country’s output followed by Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh with 20 per cent and 13 per cent, respectively.